May 24, 2016

Viruses and bacteria in Th2 biased allergic airway disease



  1. Feng Lan, 
  2. Nan Zhang, 
  3. Elien Gevaert,
  4. Luo Zhang3 and
  5. Claus Bachert
Abstract
Allergic airway diseases are typically characterized by a type 2-biased inflammation. Multiple distinct viruses and bacteria have been detected in the airways. Recently, it has been confirmed that the microbiome of allergic individuals differs from those of healthy subjects, showing a close relationship with the type 2 response in allergic airway disease.

May 23, 2016

Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by a non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity


Volume 71, Issue 5, pages 611–620, May 2016
  1. D. Simon1,‡,*
  2. A. Cianferoni2,3,‡
  3. J. M. Spergel2,3
  4. S. Aceves4
  5. M. Holbreich5
  6. C. Venter6,7
  7. M. E. Rothenberg6
  8. I. Terreehorst8
  9. A. Muraro9
  10. A. J. Lucendo10,
  11. A. Schoepfer11
  12. A. Straumann12 and
  13. H.-U. Simon13
Abstract
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. EoE is frequently associated with concomitant atopic diseases and immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization to food allergens in children as well as to aeroallergens and cross-reactive plant allergen components in adults. Patients with EoE respond well to elemental and empirical food elimination diets.

May 21, 2016

Depletion of major pathogenic cells in asthma by targeting CRTh2

Abstract
Eosinophilic inflammation and Th2 cytokine production are central to the pathogenesis of asthma. Agents that target either eosinophils or single Th2 cytokines have shown benefits in subsets of biomarker-positive patients. More broadly effective treatment or disease-modifying effects may be achieved by eliminating more than one inflammatory stimulator. Here we present a strategy to concomitantly deplete Th2 T cells, eosinophils, basophils, and type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) by generating monoclonal antibodies with enhanced effector function (19A2) that target CRTh2 present on all 4 cell types.

May 19, 2016

Predictive Factors for Medical Consultation for Sore Throat in Adults with Recurrent Pharyngotonsillitis

International Journal of Otolaryngology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6095689, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6095689
Research Article


T. Koskenkorva,1,2,3 P. Koivunen,1,2,3 and O.-P. Alho1,2,3
1Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Oulu University Hospital, Finland
2PEDEGO Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Medical Research Center Oulu, Finland
Abstract
Objects. To seek patient- and episode-related factors that associate with medical consultation for acute sore throat because these factors may affect the patient being referred to specialist care and tonsillectomy for recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Methods. In a secondary analysis of two prior randomised controlled trials, sore throat episodes and medical visits were explored among 156 adult patients referred for tonsillectomy because of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis. Results. The 156 patients (104 females, mean age of 26 years) suffered from 208 acute pharyngotonsillitis episodes during 5-6 months of follow-up. Forty (25%) patients visited a physician, and female gender (adjusted hazard ratio, HR, 3.3; 95% confidence interval 1.4–8.0) and finding of chronically infected tonsils (HR 2.7; 1.2–6.1) were associated with medical consultation.

May 18, 2016

Therapeutic anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies: from bench to bedside

Full Text
Posted online on May 10, 2016.
(doi:10.2217/imt-2016-0049)

Chantal Kuhn1 & Howard L Weiner*,1
*Author for correspondence: 
Sections: 


ABSTRACT
Next section
The induction of tolerance is a major goal of immunotherapy. Investigations over the last 20 years have shown that anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) effectively treat autoimmune disease in animal models and have also shown promise in clinical trials. Tolerance induction by anti-CD3 mAbs is related to the induction of Tregs that control pathogenic autoimmune responses. Here, we review preclinical and clinical studies in which intravenous or mucosal administration of anti-CD3 mAbs has been employed and provide an outlook on future developments to enhance the efficacy of this promising therapeutic approach.

May 15, 2016

Longitudinal stability of asthma characteristics and biomarkers from the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study

Respiratory Research201617:43P. E. Silkoff, M. Laviolette, D. Singh, J. M. FitzGerald, S. Kelsen, V. Backer, C. Porsbjerg, P. O. Girodet, P. Berger, J. N. Kline, S. Khatri, P. Chanez, V. S. Susulic, E. S. Barnathan, F. Baribaud, M. J. Loza and for the ADEPT Investigators
Abstract
Background
Asthma is a biologically heterogeneous disease and development of novel therapeutics requires understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. There is uncertainty regarding the stability of clinical characteristics and biomarkers in asthma over time. This report presents the longitudinal stability over 12 months of clinical characteristics and clinically accessible biomarkers from ADEPT.

May 13, 2016

Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?


  1. Paul J. Turner1
  2. Joseph L. Baumert2,
  3. Kirsten Beyer3
  4. Robert Boyle1
  5. Chun-Han Chan4
  6. Andrew Clark5
  7. René W.R. Crevel6,
  8. Audrey DunnGalvin7
  9. Montserrat Fernández Rivas8
  10. Hazel M. Gowland9
  11. Linus Grabenhenrich10
  12. Sarah Hardy4
  13. Geert F Houben11
  14. Jonathan O'B Hourihane12,
  15. Antonella Muraro13
  16. Lars K. Poulsen14,
  17. Katarzyna Pyrz7
  18. Benjamin C. Remington11,
  19. Sabine Schnadt15
  20. Ronald van Ree16,
  21. Carina Venter17
  22. Margitta Worm18
  23. Clare E.N. Mills19
  24. Graham Roberts20,21,22,*and
  25. Barbara K. Ballmer
  26. Weber23
DOI: 10.1111/all.12924

Abstract
Anaphylaxis has been defined as a “severe, life-threatening generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction”. However, data indicate that the vast majority of food-triggered anaphylactic reactions are not life-threatening. Nonetheless, severe life-threatening reactions do occur, and are unpredictable. We discuss the concepts surrounding perceptions of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions to food by different stakeholders, with particular reference to the inclusion of clinical severity as a factor in allergy and allergen risk management.

Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis Beyond IgE

J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2016; Vol. 26(2): 73-82 doi: 10.18176/jiaci.0046

Muñoz-Cano R1,2,4, Picado C1,2,3, Valero A1,2,3, Bartra J1,2,4
1Unitat d'Al·lergia, Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
2Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain
3Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Spain
4Red de Investigación de Reacciones Adversas a Alérgenos y Fármacos (RIRAAF), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain
 
 Abstract

Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mediators derived from mast cells and basophils. Food allergens are the main triggers of anaphylaxis, accounting for 33%-56% of all cases and up to 81% of cases of anaphylaxis in children. Human anaphylaxis is generally thought to be mediated by IgE, with mast cells and basophils as key players, although alternative mechanisms have been proposed.

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