August 4, 2015

Innate lymphocyte cells in asthma phenotypes

Review

Open Access

Leyla Pur Ozyigit1*Hideaki Morita23 and Mubeccel Akdis23

Abstract
T helper type 2 (T H 2) cells were previously thought to be the main initiating effector cell type in asthma; however, exaggerated T H2 cell activities alone were insufficient to explain all aspects of asthma. Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome comprising different phenotypes that are characterized by their different clinical features, treatment responses, and inflammation patterns.

What pulmonologists think about the asthma–COPD overlap syndrome

Authors Miravitlles M, Alcázar B, Alvarez FJ, Bazús T, Calle M, Casanova C, Cisneros C, de-Torres JP, Entrenas LM, Esteban C, García-Sidro P, Cosio BG, Huerta A, Iriberri M, Izquierdo JL, López-Viña A, López-Campos JL, Martínez-Moragón E, Pérez de Llano L, Perpiñá M, Ros JA, Serrano J, Soler-Cataluña JJ, Torrego A, Urrutia I, Plaza V
Published Date July 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 1321—1330
Received 15 May 2015Accepted 23 June 2015, Published 15 July 2015
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Hsiao-Chi Chuang
Approved for publication by Dr Richard Russell

Background: Some patients with COPD may share characteristics of asthma; this is the so-called asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). There are no universally accepted criteria for ACOS, and most treatments for asthma and COPD have not been adequately tested in this population.
Materials and methods: We performed a survey among pulmonology specialists in asthma and COPD aimed at collecting their opinions about ACOS and their attitudes in regard to some case scenarios of ACOS patients. The participants answered a structured questionnaire and attended a face-to-face meeting with the Metaplan methodology to discuss different aspects of ACOS.

Clinical contraindications to allergen immunotherapy: an EAACI position paper


  1. C. Pitsios1,*
  2. P. Demoly2,3
  3. M. B. Bilò4
  4. R. Gerth van Wijk5
  5. O. Pfaar6,7
  6. G. J. Sturm8,
  7. P. Rodriguez del Rio9
  8. M. Tsoumani10
  9. R. Gawlik11
  10. G. Paraskevopoulos12
  11. F. Ruëff13
  12. E. Valovirta14
  13. N. G. Papadopoulos15,16and
  14. M. A. Calderón17

Abstract
Clinical indications for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in respiratory and Hymenoptera venom allergy are well established; however, clinical contraindications to AIT are not always well documented. There are some discrepancies when classifying clinical contraindications for different forms of AIT as ‘absolute’ or ‘relative’. EAACI Task Force on ‘Contraindications to AIT’ was created to evaluate and review current literature on clinical contraindications, and to update recommendations for both sublingual and subcutaneous AIT for respiratory and venom immunotherapy.

August 3, 2015

Allergy immunotherapy with a hypoallergenic recombinant birch pollen allergen rBet v 1-FV in a randomized controlled trial

Research
Open Access

Ludger Klimek1*Claus Bachert2Karl-Friedrich Lukat3Oliver Pfaar5Hanns Meyer4 and Annemie Narkus4

Abstract (provisional)
Background Pollen extracts and chemically modified allergoids are used successfully in allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Recombinant extracts offer potential advantages with respect to pharmaceutical quality, standardization and dosing. A hypoallergenic recombinant folding variant of the major birch pollen allergen (rBet v 1-FV) was compared with an established native birch preparation.

Protocadherin-1 is a glucocorticoid-responsive critical regulator of airway epithelial barrier function

Research article

Open Access

Yutaka Kozu1Yasuhiro Gon1*Shuichiro Maruoka1Kuroda Kazumichi2Akiko Sekiyama1Hiroyuki Kishi3Yasuyuki Nomura3Minoru Ikeda3 and Shu Hashimoto1

Impaired epithelial barrier function renders the airway vulnerable to environmental triggers associated with the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. We investigated the influence of protocadherin-1 (PCDH1), a susceptibility gene for bronchial hyperresponsiveness, on airway epithelial barrier function.
We applied transepithelial electric resistance and dextran permeability testing to evaluate the barrier function of cultured airway epithelial cells. We studied PCDH1 function by siRNA-mediated knockdown and analyzed nasal or bronchial tissues from 16 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and nine patients with bronchial asthma for PCDH1 expression.

Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants

Position article and guidelines

Open Access

David M. Fleischer1Scott Sicherer2Matthew Greenhawt3Dianne Campbell4Edmond S. Chan5*Antonella Muraro6,Susanne Halken6Yitzhak Katz7Motohiro Ebisawa8Lawrence Eichenfield9Hugh Sampson10For the Leap Study Team and Secondary Contributors

Abstract (provisional)
The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants.

Early childhood wheezers: identifying asthma in later life


Abstract

Wheeze in young children is common, and asthma is the most common noncommunicable disease in children. Prevalence studies of recurrent asthma-like symptoms in children under the age of 5 years have reported that one third of children in the US and Europe are affected, and rates and severity appear to be higher in developing countries.

The airway microbiome in patients with severe asthma: Associations with disease features and severity

 2015 Jul 25. pii: S0091-6749(15)00838-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.05.044. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Asthma is heterogeneous, and airway dysbiosis is associated with clinical features in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma. Whether similar relationships exist among patients with severe asthma is unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

We sought to evaluate relationships between the bronchial microbiome and features of severe asthma.

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